Author: Ritik Goyal
Student of IMS Law College, Noida
Education can be defined as a process of getting knowledge, value, morals, beliefs etc. one can get education from teaching, discussion, storytelling or research. As we know education is present in the concurrent list under schedule 8 of the constitution of India both centre and the state can make laws and policy on education.
There are two ways to get an education:
1. Formal education: In this, we go in proper order first we go to preschooling, primary schooling, secondary schooling, and then college, university.
2. Informal education: One gets informal education by experience or vocational training.
We can find traces of right to education in different statutes like the constitution of India which provides the right to education for children of ages 6-14 under article 21(A) which is a fundamental right under the right to freedom it was added to the constitution by 86th (2002) constitution amendment. Education can also be found under the directive principles of state policy article 45 states that “The State shall Endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”.
United nation on sustainable goals number 4 provide quality education under which it has seventh targets to achieves are:
Free primary and secondary education
Equal access to quality pre-primary education
Equal access to affordable technical, vocational, and higher education
Increase the number of people with relevant skills for financial success
Eliminate all discrimination in education
Universal literacy and numeracy
Education for sustainable development and global citizenship
We got our first education policy in 1968 under the recommendation of Kothari commission by the then government of Indra Gandhi. This policy focuses on three languages system in which the first in English, the second official language of the state and last is Hindi; policy also focuses on the Sanskrit language as it has a historic background.
Then we got the next policy in 1986 by Rajiv Gandhi government main focus of this policy is to emphasize on the removal of disparities and to provide equal opportunity in education for Indian women. This was the child-centric policy.’ Operation blackboard’ was launched to improve primary education. It focuses on open schooling by setting up Indra Gandhi National Open University, this policy targeted to spend 6% of GDP on education.
The main purpose of the new education policy is to provide a comprehensive framework for the development of the education system in the country. It has been the latest policy on education. It has many changes for the betterment of the students by replacing the 34-year-old policy of 1986. Its vision is to transform the country’s sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society
It has many objectives to achieve by 2025 are;
That every child in the age group of 3 to 6 years gets access to education.
That every student in grade 5 or higher has got foundational literacy.
To get greater participation from children in the age group of 3 to 18 years by 2030.
To transform the method of teaching from rote learning to critical learning.
To improve the quality of education by ensuring that teachers at all levels are highly qualified, motivated and passionate to teach the students.
And to achieve all these different changes are made there will be opening up Indian higher education to foreign universities, removing of UGC ( university grant commission ) and AICTE ( All India Council for technical education .in schools primary focus is on make curriculum simple and easier for the board exams and syllabus is on experiential learning and
implication of knowledge subjects. Policy changed the 10+2 education structure into 5+3+3+4 structure for school education. This division is on the bases of the age “5 represent age groups of 3 to 8 years for their fundamental growth, 3 for 8 to 11 for the preparatory stage, 3 for 11 to 14 and last 4 is for 14 to 18 age groups. To make it easier for the children they will be taught in their mother tongue or regional language up to class 5.
It also focuses on multi-stream in which students can choose from varieties of subjects from different fields .for student at graduation level they can take a drop in any year of the college if they are not able to continue their studies with a proper certificate if they leave after the first year, a diploma if they live after the second year and a degree if they leave after the third year and can pursue any things they are interested in.
Have you ever thought we are around 17% of world brain and still we have only 2.8% of research output from our country perhaps not, all this is because we only focus on facts and textbook materials as it provides well-filled mind but in the era of internet we don’t need a well-filled mind but a well-formed mind that can react to the unfamiliar facts and details .in other words a mind that can react to the bigger examination called life?
If we ask any companies CEO or employee most of them says that they are not satisfied with the quality of the graduates they are getting and to fill this gap between the quality they are having and the quality company required the company has to give them training in, other words, they have to teach the fresh graduate the syllabus that they have not learned properly.
All this problem can be solved if new education policy is implemented properly as the policy is not binding upon the state there are few states which do not follow one or more changes stated in the policy example:
Tamil Nadu is a state which does not follow the three language change that was prescribed by the first education policy.
Apart from the above-mentioned changes, there are many more changes that will fully change our education system and everything can be a road for reform because of its knowledge-centric.
All this can be possible because of Dr Krishnaswamy Kasturi Rangan and his panel who all drafted the new education policy 2020.
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